Summaries and Sources

Chapter 1
Introduction: Into the world of hacktivism

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The introduction to the dissertation defines hacktivism as the nonviolent use of illegal or legally ambiguous digital tools in pursuit of political ends. This definition separates hacktivism from a number of other online and offline forms of political action:

This chapter also introduces the different forms of hacktivism: web site defacements, redirects, denial-of-service attacks, information theft, site parodies, virtual sit-ins, virtual sabotage and software development. It also provides an overview of the small academic literature on hacktivism.


Activism, Hacktivism, and Cyberterrorism: The Internet as a Tool for Influencing Foreign Policy
Dorothy E. Denning, The Internet and International Systems: Information Technology and American Foreign Policy Decisionmaking, December 10, 1999

Cyber Protests: The Threat to the U.S. Information Infrastructure
National Infrastructure Protection Center, October, 2001

Hacktivism: Securing the National Infrastructure
Mark G. Milone, The Business Lawyer, November, 2002

Hacktivism: informational politics for informational times
Tim Jordan and Paul A. Taylor (Routledge, 2004)

Activism! : direct action, hactivism and the future of society
Tim Jordan (London: Reaktion Books, 2002)

Hacking for Democracy: A Study of the Internet as a Political Force and Its Representation in the Mainstream Media
Sandor Vegh, American Studies, 2003

From Mobilization to Revolution
Charles Tilly (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1978)

Dynamics of Contention
Doug McAdam, Sidney Tarrow and Charles Tilly (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

The Internet galaxy : reflections on the Internet, business, and society
Manuel Castells (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001)

Digital divide : civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet worldwide
Pippa Norris (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Social movement networks: Virtual and real
Mario Diani, in ed. F. Webster, Culture and politics in the information age : a new politics? (London: Routledge, 2001)

Attrition: Evolution
Attrition, May 21, 2001

Site defacement, US Dept. of Justice
August 18, 1996

Site defacement
Doctor Nuker, December 29, 1999

Ku Klux Klan Korrected
James Glave, Wired News, September 10, 1999

Denial-of-service attack
July 30, 2004

Is This World Cyber War I?
Michelle Delio, Wired News, May 1, 2001

Hackers Invade World Economic Forum
Tim McDonald, NewsFactor Network, February 5, 2001

Palestinian Hacktivism and Viruses Collide
Robyn Weisman, NewsFactor Network, March 20, 2001

Electrohippies Claim Online WTO Protest A Success
Robert MacMillan, Newsbytes, December 3, 1999

Hacktivism: Is Hacktivism Civil Disobedience?
William Karam

Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic
Mark Manion and Abby Goodrum, Computers and Society, June, 2000

Cyber Disobedience: When is Hacktivism Civil Disobedience?
Brian J. Huschle, International Journal of Applied Philosophy, 2002

Editorial: Hacktivism
Paul A. Taylor, The Semiotic Review of Books, Fall, 2001

The Advent of Netwar (Revisited)
John Arquilla and David F. Ronfeldt, in eds. J. Arquilla and D. F. Ronfeldt, Networks and netwars (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001)

The Zapatista Social Netwar in Mexico
David Ronfeldt, John Arguilla, Graham E. Fuller and Melissa Fuller, 1998

What Next for Networks and Netwars?
John Arquilla and David F. Ronfeldt, in eds. J. Arquilla and D. F. Ronfeldt, Networks and netwars (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001)

Hacktivism and Other Net Crimes
Dorothy E. Denning, Ubiquity, August, 2000

Digital Disobedience: Hacktivism in Political Context
Alexandra Samuel, American Political Science Association Annual Meetings, 2001